ICS Learn logo

6 Different Career Specialisations in IT

Pursuing a career in information technology (IT) can be a rewarding and lucrative career path to follow. If you’re someone who likes to be challenged and is keen on an intellectually stimulating profession, then a career in IT might be ideal for you!

With so many technological advancements continuously being introduced, one thing is certain: you’ll never be bored or underwhelmed with an IT career. Not only that, but IT professionals are always in demand to help organisations keep up with these advancements and the necessary security procedures that safeguard sensitive data. 

In fact, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics, many careers in information technology are expected to grow as much as 32% in demand between 2022 and 2032.

Gaining a degree or qualification in IT is undoubtedly a great starting point and can provide you with many opportunities for a career in the field. From safeguarding an organisation’s digital systems to unravelling trends from big data, there’s an IT career specialisation out there that aligns with your skills and aspirations. 

In this blog, we explore 6 different IT career specialisations to help you decide on the right career path for you. 

Rsz Shutterstock 1936992901

1) Software Engineer 

Software engineers typically employ their knowledge of computer science and mathematics to code new computer software or improve existing ones. 

Depending on their employer, software engineers may work on operating systems, network control systems or enterprise applications. All of these are examples of software that can help businesses elevate their IT infrastructure, ultimately creating programmes that are user-friendly and efficient. 

The work of software engineers is often ongoing, continuously revising existing applications and software in an effort to identify ways in which they can better serve customers and clients, or correct any bugs within those programs to boost their company’s reliability and performance. 

Software engineers are usually part of a larger IT team and work closely with analysts, designers and testers to help bring projects and software strategies to fruition. 

Most common skills:

  • Proficiency in common programming languages such as Java, Python and C++
  • Excellent verbal and written communication skills, primarily for making complex concepts and terminology more comprehensible 
  • Technical knowledge and understanding of front-end web technologies and operating systems
  • Diagnostic skills to identify programming faults and how to improve them
  • Problem-solving skills for bug resolution and programme improvement

2) Web Developer

Web developers, or web programmers, are IT professionals responsible for creating as well as maintaining web applications and websites, whether that is in-house for an employer or on a freelance consultancy basis.

They utilise languages such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript to create and maintain graphics, applications and content that directly address a customer’s needs, while also designing the navigation, appearance and content organisation of a website. 

Web developers regularly work alongside web designers to create user-friendly website interfaces and are also accountable for testing applications to make sure that they operate as they should, without any bugs or coding errors.

Most common skills:

  • Strong knowledge of languages such as CSS, HTML and JavaScript
  • Ability to write efficient coding for software development using best practices 
  • Good communication skills to effectively work with colleagues, to create websites according to the agreed visual intent, in a timely manner, following the refined requirement and specifications
  • Effective documentation for the software utilised
  • Attention to detail for improving and enhancing website following their creation 
  • Ability to devise contingency plans in the event that the websites and servers are down 
Rsz Shutterstock 2136788117

3) Cybersecurity

IT professionals who work in cybersecurity specialise in creating programmes and processes, for organisations, which safeguard their digital systems, networks and data from unauthorised access, breaches and cyber threats. 

They play a crucial role for companies, making sure that sensitive information is protected, putting measures in place to prevent cyber attacks and ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of information systems. 

Cybersecurity professionals can generally work across multiple industries and for organisations with digital operations to implement and maintain security systems for sensitive data. 

Most common skills:

  • Proficiency in programming and scripting languages such as JavaScript 
  • Risk management and identification of potential threats and vulnerabilities in the organisation’s existing processes 
  • Adaptability and quick thinking to adjust processes, learn new technologies and stay up-to-date with technological changes as new types of threats arise
  • Understanding of automation and ability to implement automated processes to certain security tasks
  • Data management and creation of systems that can organise, analyse and protect such sensitive data

4) Data Scientist 

Data scientists, or data analysts, have primary duties to analyse and organise raw data, turning it into meaningful information which can, in turn, help determine trends that will influence business decisions and improve processes. 

Usually, data scientists are responsible for analysing large data sets, and creating algorithms that manage and organise information. Additionally, they also develop applications that translate data into easily consumable information, where patterns can be identified.

Data scientists employ statistics and machine learning to complete their duties, which enables them to collect and process a company’s vast data sets, such as financial records, prospects, sales and lead generation. 

Their work is crucial for businesses, as the insights extracted can help organisations make informed decisions to improve how they operate in their respective market and create a competitive advantage.

Most common skills:

  • Proficiency in algorithm design and using statistical structuring methods
  • Excellent verbal and written communication skills to effectively explain complex information
  • Experience in data visualisation and presenting data in graph format
  • Proficiency in programming languages such as Java, Python and R, with strong coding skills
  • Excellent in mathematical computing
  • Ability to effectively use linear and non-linear regressions, clustering, logistic regression, models and classification techniques for data analysis
  • Ability to clean and validate data to ensure accuracy 
Rsz Shutterstock 1836307909

5) IT Support

IT support is a broad job category and the responsibilities of the role can vary significantly depending on the business model or the client. However, IT support is typically involved in assisting and resolving technical issues relating to computer systems, software applications, networks and other IT infrastructure components. 

Within the business’s support team, IT support tends to be the first point of contact for troubleshooting issues end users face. 

IT support must remain up-to-date with the latest technologies and have a strong knowledge base in order to assist users effectively. They usually provide assistance with troubleshooting software and hardware concerns, configuring systems, network connectivity resolution and providing guidance with regards to software applications used by the company.

Most common skills:

  • Strong listening skills and understanding of technical components to identify issues 
  • Excellent communication skills to provide clear guidance and feedback for the resolution of issues
  • Experience in working across multiple operating systems such as Windows, MacOS and Linux
  • Ability to break down issues logically, providing solutions based on methodical problem-solving
  • Patience with technical setbacks and addressing time-consuming problems

6) UX Designer 

UX designers, or user experience designers are responsible for the general appearance and functionality of a website, software or application, while also overseeing any problem areas. 

Commonly, UX designers work directly with an organisation, gathering and reviewing user feedback to help build websites that are easily accessible, functional and efficient for their user base. 

They tend to work closely with design and content professionals to apply this data to the design and organisation of a website, to ultimately improve the usability of digital products. 

However, while design can take up much of their day-to-day duties, UX designers also continuously monitor and test digital products, reviewing them, to determine errors. With that, they then must make the appropriate design decisions, until they meet the functionality and high-quality standards of customers. 

Most common skills:

  • Quick thinking and good problem-solving skills
  • Strong verbal and written communication skills to effectively explain complex theories and terminology
  • Good attention to detail to be able to identify errors in the functionality of digital products 
  • A good understanding of user experience and marketing processes such as branding and purchasing
  • Ability to work collaboratively with a team of other professionals 
  • Ability to take initiative and make decisions
Rsz Shutterstock 1704131167

Whether you’re more fascinated with coding or have a knack for design and organisation, your options to pursue an IT career are limitless. As IT professionals apply their knowledge of computer systems and networks to enable organisations to run efficiently in a digital world, it’s essential to explore and hone the skills you need to excel in the IT specialisation most in-line with your career goals. 


Gain the knowledge and skills required to succeed in IT with a 100% online BCS qualification.

Download Your Free BCS Course Guide

Get information on our BCS courses

Share this post